Ramadan is the name of the ninth month of the lunar year coming after Sha'ban, before Shawwal.
Ramaḍân is the month in which the Quran was revealed as a guide for humanity with clear proofs of guidance and the standard ˹to distinguish between right and wrong˺. So whoever is present this month, let them fast. (2/Al-Baqarah, 185)
It is possible to state Ramadan's main properties as follows:
1) Quran had started to be descended in this month, and the night of Qadr, that is stated in verses and hadith to be more valuable than a thousand months, is also in this month. (el-Kadr 97/3; Nesai, “Şıyam”, 5)
2) Fitrah, a monetary devotion, has to be paid at the end of this month and before the eid.
3) It is favoured to read Quran and contemplate quite often in the month of Ramadan which is also called as "The month of Quran".
"Whoever prayed at night in it (the month of Ramadan) out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven." (Buhârî, Îmân, 37; Müslim, Müsâfirîn, 173)
"The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever fasts Ramadan out of faith and in the hope of reward, he will be forgiven his previous sins." (Buhârî, Îmân, 28; Müslim, Sıyam, 203)
"When the month of Ramadan starts, the gates of the heaven are opened and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained." (Buhârî, Savm, 5; Müslim, Sıyam, 1)
"There are two joys for the fasting person: the joy when he breaks his fast, and the joy of when he meets his Lord." (Buhârî, Savm, 2)
Every good deed is rewarded with ten of the same up to seven hundred times over. Fasting is for Me, and I shall reward for it.' (Müslim, “Sıyam”, 164)
O believers! Fasting is prescribed for you—as it was for those before you---so perhaps you will become mindful ˹of Allah˺. (2/Al-Baqarah, 183)
˹Fast ˺ prescribed number of days. But whoever of you is ill or on a journey, then ˹let them fast˺ an equal number of days ˹after Ramaḍân˺. For those who can only fast with extreme difficulty, compensation can be made by feeding a needy person ˹for every day not fasted˺. But whoever volunteers to give more, it is better for them. And to fast is better for you, if only you knew. (2/Al-Baqarah, 184)